Lysosomes are small organelles that work as the recycling center in the cells. Many lysosomal digesting enzymes break down macromolecules, so they can be reuse…
Mitochondrion is a rod-shaped organelle and its function is to generate energy (ATP) for the cell. Mitochondria contain their own DNA that enconde 13 proteins.
Ribosomes are complex molecular machines that make proteins inside cells. Ribosomes consist of two subunits – larger and smaller, made by a complex of RNA…
Three types of microscopes: light microscopes (compound, stereo, inverted, fluorescence, confocal, and super-resolution microscope), electron microscope, and scanning probe microscopes.
A simple microscope is the earliest type of microscope. It has only one lens and functions as a magnifying glass. Compound microscopes use two convex…
Microscope parts include eyepiece (10x), objective lenses (4x, 10x, 40x, 100x), fine and coarse focus, slide holder, condenser, iris diaphragm, illuminator, and specimen stage.
The vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle that is present in all plant cells. The main function is for storage, defense, and acting as a space…
Golgi apparatus is a membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The function of Golgi apparatus is to process proteins and send proteins to different…
Plant cells share many organelles in common with animal cells. There are three unique features in plant cells, cell wall, vacuole, and chloroplast.
We discuss the place where to find paramecium, how to make paramecium culture at home, how to look at paramecium under a microscope.
Our idea is to cover the microscope parts that each user may touch with plastic wrap. Between two users, the plastic wrap cover will be…
Paramecium reproduction, aging, learning and memory ability, movement, sensing, feeding behaviors, and their endosymbiotic relationship with algae.
Were images taken by electron microscopes? You will learn how to recognize images from EM and the difference between SEM and TEM.
Paramecium is a unicellular organism with a shape resembling a slipper and 50-300 µm in length. It belongs to Chromista kingdom.
Guide to plant anatomy and biology using microscope premade slide sets. We can observed roots, cross section of stems, leaves, pollen grains and seeds.
Use this guide to build a creative animal cell model using household items. You will be amazed how much cell biology you will learn.
We choose fruit and vegetable to create our own cell model project. For example, we choose avocado seed for representing the cell nucleus.
A step-by-step guide to make your bacteria handprint. Bacteria colony morphology differs in shape, size, color, and margin.
Biological stains are used for better visualization of microscope specimens. Some pet medicine at your home and food-coloring dye can be used as well.
Bacteria are hard to see because they are tiny and colorless. One way is to use a Gram stain. The steps are crystal violet, iodine,…
They are cheek cells, onion skin, yeast cells, mold, eggshell membrane, water bears, pond water microorganisms, pollen, salt, sugar, pepper, and soap form.
Most cells are visible under a light microscope, but mitochondria and bacteria are barely visible. An electron microscope is required for virus and DNA.
How to choose the right microscope for your need. We discuss types of samples are suitable for the compound microscope vs. stereo microscope.
Best tips you should know to take care of your microscope. This post includes how to use oil lens and immersion oil to get higher…
This post covers what is microscope immersion oil, why do you need it, when and how to use a microscope immersion oil.
A step by step guide for growing your own yeast and for counting the number of yeast cells using a hemocytometer.
We saw amazing plankton tiny creatures in pond life, including ciliates, rotifers, Amoeba, Tardigrades (water bears), worms, and planarians.
Guide to do scale casting with clear nail polish to see microtopography. We demonstrated plant leaves and hairs as examples.
A step-by-step guide to use a microtome to create an amazing cross section of plant stem.
Step-by-step guide for onion dissection to get plant cells, so you can look at plant cells under the microscope.
A step by step guide to show you how to mount a slide for microscope using your cheek cells as an example. We discuss the…
Prepare a working space and protect yourself. This is an essential step for all science.